Twenty-five years ago, on October 11 and 12, 1986, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and U.S. President Ronald Reagan met in Reykjavík, Iceland. Just a few years earlier, Reagan had labeled the Soviet Union an “evil empire,” and less than a year after the summit Reagan would challenge Gorby to “tear down this wall” in Berlin.
U.S. President Ronald Reagan (left) and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev shaking hands during a summit in Reykjavík, Iceland, October 1986. Credit: David & Peter Turnley/Corbis.
Like Nixon going to China in 1972, the hardline anticommunist Reagan represented perhaps the best hope for America to do a deal with the new Soviet leader, since he could withstand a challenge from the right that he was “soft on communism.” As Britannica says, at the dramatic summit in Iceland:
Mikhail Gorbachev (left) and Ronald Reagan signing the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) Treaty, Decemeber 8, 1987. Credit: AFP/Getty Images.
Gorbachev proposed a 50 percent reduction in the nuclear arsenals of each side, and for a time it seemed as though a historic agreement would be reached. Although the summit ended in failure owing to differences over SDI, it was followed up in December 1987 by a treaty eliminating intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) on European soil. The INF Treaty was the first arms-control pact to require an actual reduction in nuclear arsenals rather than merely restricting their proliferation.
Helping ease the negotiations in that 14 months between Iceland and the INF Treaty was the personal camaraderie that Reagan and Gorbachev enjoyed. Indeed, when President Reagan died in 2004, Gorbachev was deeply mourned his old friend, his genuine grief evident when he “gave [Reagan's coffin] a pat” and called Reagan an “extraordinary political leader” who chose peace at an opportunity when both superpowers were ready to grasp it. Within just a few years of the summit, the Soviet Union would be no longer, an the Cold War would be done. Still, Gorbachev summed up what the world suffered during more than four decades of hostilities between the Soviets and Americans:
I think we all lost the Cold War, particularly the Soviet Union. We each lost $10 trillion….We only won when the Cold War ended.
Source: Britannica Blog